Leadership of transformational change has to be one of the most difficult disciplines a manager can master. For mine, the biggest hurdle is the capacity of managers to be unreasonable for a sustained amount of time.
“If you argue with a fool, they will drag you down to their level and beat you with experience” – anon
Having worked in the discipline of change for over twenty years I have learnt a couple of things.
- 80% is frequently considered good enough
- Consultants need to forced out of their comfort zones
- Sponsorship is a misunderstood role
- A project is always stronger when there is a person who is willing to be politically incorrect.
As a consultant it is not difficult to lead the thinking at a client site. This is almost what you get paid for. But despite all the intellectual property a consulting firm has in the ‘cupboard’, the thought leadership provided by a consultant is frequently no better than the sum of their experiences. And because the client does not really know better, this leadership is treated as appropriate for the project at hand.
The frequently used consulting approach is to rely on experience and the deliverables previously prepared for somebody else on a different project. This material gets reworked, refreshed, re-presented and re-invoiced. Nothing fundamentally wrong with this as it is part of the value that consultants offer.
At this point in the project the client is impressed. They have a concept deliverable they can review and critique. The relationship is working well. But here’s the problem. The clients thinking becomes constrained by the tabled deliverable. They start to critique what’s there. The far more powerful critique of ‘whats not there’ is often missed.
Then the client is faced with a problem. How do they tell the consultant what they have produced is just rubbish. Not only is it rubbish, but they don’t want to pay for it either. Managers tend to be diplomatic and in the intimacy of a consulting engagement they don’t want to fracture the relationship. So they ask the consultant for changes and refinements and so start down the journey of accepting 80% of what they really wanted in the first place.
When the consultant runs up against a client who knows their own mind and who has a clear picture of the deliverable, then the consultant is forced to lift their game. No longer can they provide clever ideas on PowerPoint that could mean more than one thing depending on how the conversation goes.
But to find a client who knows their own mind is rare. Sure, every manager will say – I am my own person. This is true at a private or small group level, but less so in the public forum of meetings and written communications. In these arenas the manager become diplomatic and couches the message. This happens for a few reasons. 1. They are unsure of what the answer should be. They know what the consultant provided is wrong, but cannot easily explain why. 2. Their colleagues seem to be happy, so the manager starts to believe they don’t get it. They must be missing something. 3. If they speak out and cause the project to change and then it turns out they were wrong, it could be embarrassing or career limiting. 4. The project brief was given by more senior managers and the manager does not believe they have the authority or insight required to change the course of the project. If the project was off track, surely the senior manager would have done something about it.
It is unlikely that these 4 points can ever be fully mitigated and a certain diplomacy is needed otherwise the project will never deliver anything. But the primary mitigation is to ensure the sponsor is strong and willing to be unreasonable. As long as they are willing to tell the project team that the deliverables are unacceptable and to minimise any compromise from this position, then the project will remain healthy.
I quite like the advertisement for Nissan. It shows the product development team presenting the latest features to the senior executive. They are excited about what they have produced. He just looks at them and says “more”. No discussion. Just do better. Eventually they produce an output that works for the executive. They present the price. He says “less”.
It’s a great example of being unreasonable. Drive the team to get what you want. Anything less is to accept a deliverable that is “80%” complete.
I once listen to a long presentation by senior manager. At the end he asked if I agree. I said with 98%. His response was excellent. Basically it went – to hell with the 98% – the 2% is the bit of value.
This incident has stuck with me for nearly 20 years. The 2% is the only bit of value. The same applies to projects. It is not hard to get 80% complete, it is very hard to get 100% complete but because 80% looks like a lot, it is accepted and the last 20% – the bit with the real value, the bit that changes the project from adequate to exceptional – is poorly delivered.
The hard reality is that it will take almost the same effort to realise the value in the last 20% as it did producing the first 80%. Finishing anything always takes longer than expected and projects are no different. The sponsor is now also up against change fatigue, boredom and indifference from the project team and the subject matter experts who have been involved in the project. By now these people are ‘over it’ and they just want it to finish. They will have 100 reasons why close enough is good enough.
This is where the sponsor needs to be very strong and uncompromising. Drive the value out from this last 20%.
From the consultants’ point of view, they have spent their time chasing the 80% and the budget is almost fully consumed. They realise that delivering the 20% could lead to free consulting. They need to avoid this so they start to push a narrative that says the 80% was in fact the scope of the project and the 20% is extra. Chances are they even have a scope document that supports this position. The problem is that they articulated the 100% vision to the client but sold the 80% deliverable. They sold the augmented business benefit – the benefit the client could get if they did 5 other things to improve their business over and above buying the consultants solution. It is not an easy game. The client would not have bought the solution if they knew they needed to do the other 5 things as well. The consultant knows that their solution will deliver value to the client and that the client just doesn’t get it yet. They are confident that by the end of the project the client will see the see the value and be glad of the project. So the consultant sells the client what they are willing to buy and figures that they will work out the details later. This is all good until the project budget runs out. This brings us around a full circle – the sponsor needs to be very strong and uncompromising. Hold the consultancy to account. “Give me the value you promised”.
A feature of the last 20% is that it is likely to comprise the intangible deliverables of the project. It represents the answer to the – so what – question. The 80% project delivered an ERP solution – so what. The 80% delivered re-engineered processes – so what. Can the sponsor bank the benefit?
The role of the sponsor is to define the project and accept the deliverables and in my opinion to be absolutely dogmatic on ensuring the deliverables produce the bankable outcomes and benefits described at the start. But if it was easy, everybody would be doing it.
Is this post cynical – absolutely. Does it apply universally to all clients and consultants – absolutely not. But there is a little bit of it in all of us.